Exam Questions with Short Answers for 3rd Engineers in Italy

1- Causes of the asynchronous motor shutdown (Diesel generator)

Causes of asynchronous motor shutdown in diesel generators include overheating, electrical faults, mechanical failures, or loss of excitation. Overheating can occur due to insufficient cooling or blocked air passages, while electrical faults can result from damaged wiring or component failure.

2- Wheelhouses of the ship

Wheelhouses on ships are the enclosed spaces where navigational equipment and controls are located. The bridge team, led by the officer on watch, operates from the wheelhouse to navigate the vessel. Wheelhouses are designed to provide maximum visibility and are equipped with radar, GPS, ECDIS, and communication systems per IMO regulations.

3- Bilge separator in the engine room

A bilge separator in the engine room is designed to remove oil from bilge water before discharge. It operates in accordance with MARPOL Annex I regulations and uses a combination of coalescing and separation techniques to ensure the water discharged contains no more than 15 ppm of oil.

4- Tank pressure tests on ships

Tank pressure tests on ships, also known as hydrostatic tests, are conducted to verify the integrity and strength of a vessel’s tanks. These tests involve filling the tanks with water or another suitable liquid and applying pressure to identify any leaks or structural weaknesses, as per IMO and classification society requirements.

5– MARPOL Annex 5 and 6

MARPOL Annex 5 deals with garbage disposal regulations from ships, outlining disposal restrictions and requirements for garbage management plans. Annex 6 focuses on the prevention of air pollution from ships, including the reduction of harmful emissions such as NOx, SOx, and particulate matter, as well as establishing Emission Control Areas (ECAs).

6- Ship fuel Bunkering procedure

Ship fuel bunkering procedure involves planning, preparation, safety measures, and documentation. Communication between the ship and bunker barge is essential, along with monitoring for leaks, spills, and ensuring the correct quantity and quality of fuel is supplied. The procedure should follow IMO guidelines and the ship’s safety management system.

7- Supercharging of marine diesel engines

Supercharging of marine diesel engines involves increasing the air supply to the engine to improve combustion and increase power output. This is achieved through the use of turbochargers or superchargers, which force more air into the engine’s cylinders. Supercharging enhances engine efficiency and reduces harmful emissions.

8- Logbook of the engine room (engineering department) on ships

The logbook of the engine room documents all engineering activities, maintenance, repairs, and important events. It is a vital record for tracking the ship’s performance and compliance with regulations. Logbook entries should be clear, accurate, and made in accordance with the ship’s safety management system and flag state requirements.

9- Speed and voltage regulator for electromotors (of pumps) on ships

Speed and voltage regulators for electromotors on ships ensure that pumps and other electrical equipment maintain a stable speed and voltage during operation, preventing fluctuations that could lead to equipment damage or failure. These regulators are essential for maintaining the proper functioning of electrical systems on board.

10- Marine Boilers

Marine boilers are used to generate steam for various shipboard purposes, including heating, propulsion, and electricity generation. They work by heating water to create steam, which is then transported through a network of pipes and used as needed. Marine boilers must comply with SOLAS and other relevant regulations for safety and efficiency.

11- MARPOL annex 1 and 2

MARPOL Annex 1 deals with the prevention of oil pollution from ships, outlining regulations for discharging oil, oily mixtures, and oily residues. Annex 2 focuses on the control of pollution from noxious liquid substances in bulk, specifying the discharge criteria and segregation requirements for such substances.

12- ISM Code

The ISM Code is an international standard for the safe management and operation of ships, aimed at minimizing the risk of accidents, pollution, and loss of life at sea. The code requires shipping companies to establish a safety management system, including a safety and environmental protection policy, procedures, and guidelines for onboard maintenance, operations, and emergency situations.

13- Hydraulic systems on ships (basics and machinery case of applications)

Hydraulic systems on ships use pressurized fluid to transmit power for various applications, such as steering, stabilizers, and hatch cover operation. Hydraulic systems are designed to provide efficient and precise control of shipboard machinery. Components of these systems include pumps, valves, actuators, and hydraulic fluid, which must be regularly maintained to ensure proper functioning.

14- Protection and problem detection in the marine diesel engines

Protection and detection systems in marine diesel engines are crucial for preventing accidents and maintaining engine performance. These systems monitor parameters such as temperature, pressure, and vibration, and can trigger alarms or initiate shutdown procedures if anomalies are detected. Regular maintenance and testing of these systems is essential for engine safety and reliability.

15- Fluid operating machines

Fluid operating machines, such as pumps and compressors, are essential components of a ship’s engineering systems. They use the principles of fluid dynamics to transfer energy and move fluids throughout the vessel. Proper maintenance and operation of these machines are crucial for the efficient functioning of a ship’s systems.

16- Open loop and close loop on ships (examples)

Open-loop and closed-loop systems on ships refer to different approaches for managing fluids or gases. Open loop systems, such as seawater cooling systems, take in fresh fluid from the environment, use it, and then discharge it. Like freshwater cooling systems, closed loop systems continuously recirculate the same fluid, using heat exchangers to maintain temperature control.

17- Diesel lubrication and system constitution, safety features and characteristics

Diesel lubrication systems provide essential lubrication to reduce friction and wear in engine components. These systems include oil pumps, filters, coolers, and pressure regulators. Safety features and characteristics of diesel lubrication systems include pressure relief valves, bypass filters, and alarms for low oil pressure or high temperature.

18- Basic principles of function and axis line construction, visual checks during the car ride

Basic principles of function and axis line construction involve aligning a ship’s propulsion and steering systems to ensure efficient and smooth operation. Visual checks during the car ride, or shaft alignment process, ensure proper alignment of the propulsion system, bearings, and gearbox. Regular inspections help identify and correct misalignments, reducing wear and tear on components.

19- Devices and equipment for measuring on-board electrical devices

Devices and equipment for measuring on-board electrical devices include multimeters, clamp meters, insulation testers, and power analyzers. These tools allow engineers to monitor electrical system performance, diagnose faults, and perform preventative maintenance. Proper use and regular calibration of these instruments are essential for maintaining electrical system reliability and safety.

20- Blackout resolution

Blackout resolution involves identifying the cause of a power failure, implementing emergency power systems, and restoring normal power supply. The process requires effective communication, troubleshooting, and coordination among the crew. Regular drills and maintenance of emergency power systems are critical for efficient blackout resolution.

21- Notable points (center of gravity, center of chain, meta-center) what happens if you move weights on a decked ship and diagram

Notable points on a ship include the center of gravity, center of buoyancy, and metacenter. Moving weights on a decked ship affects its stability and trim. A stability diagram shows how these points relate and provides essential information for safe loading and weight distribution. Understanding these concepts is vital for maintaining a ship’s stability and preventing capsizing or excessive trim.

22- Vessel compartmentation

Vessel compartmentation refers to dividing a ship into watertight and fire-resistant compartments to maintain structural integrity, stability, and safety in case of emergencies. These compartments limit the spread of water or fire, providing time for damage control and evacuation. Compartments are designed according to SOLAS and classification society regulations.

23- Basic principles and operation of fresh water generators (pump types)

Freshwater generators on ships use various methods, such as evaporators, reverse osmosis, or plate-type heat exchangers, to produce potable water from seawater. These systems provide essential water supplies for drinking, cooking, and sanitation. Proper operation and maintenance of these systems are crucial for ensuring a reliable and safe water supply.

24- Causes of asynchronous, synchronous and diesel engine shutdown

Causes of asynchronous, synchronous, and diesel engine shutdown can include mechanical failure, electrical faults, thermal overload, or control system malfunctions. Regular maintenance, inspections, and monitoring can help prevent unexpected shutdowns and ensure the continued safe and efficient operation of these engines.

25- PLC on ships

Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) on ships play a critical role in automating and controlling various systems, such as propulsion, power management, and auxiliary machinery. PLCs receive input signals from sensors and devices, process them based on pre-defined logic, and generate output signals to control equipment. By integrating PLCs into shipboard systems, operators can efficiently manage and monitor processes, improve reliability, and enhance overall safety.

26- Displacement of weights and notable points and stability diagram

Displacement of weights and notable points on a ship, such as the center of gravity, center of buoyancy, and metacenter, affect its stability and trim. A stability diagram helps visualize these relationships and provides essential information for safe loading and weight distribution. Proper understanding of these concepts is crucial for maintaining a ship’s stability and preventing accidents.

27- Duties of the engineer officer of the watch in case of fire and fulfilments

Duties of the engineer officer of the watch in case of fire include initiating firefighting procedures, alerting the crew and bridge, securing affected areas, and managing the ship’s engineering systems to support firefighting efforts. Fulfillments may include coordinating with the emergency response team, following safety protocols, and assisting in damage control.

28- MARPOL annexes 3

MARPOL Annex III addresses the prevention of pollution by harmful substances carried by sea in packaged forms. This includes the proper packaging, labelling, and stowage of dangerous goods to minimize the risk of pollution or accidents. Compliance with Annex III is critical for ensuring the safety of the ship, crew, and environment.

29- Liquid and diathermic fuel boilers, economizers,  and boilers

Liquid and diathermic fuel boilers are used to generate steam or hot water for various shipboard applications, such as heating or power generation. Economizers are heat exchangers that recover waste heat from exhaust gases, improving the efficiency of the boilers. Proper operation and maintenance of these systems are vital for energy efficiency and safety.

30- Production and distribution of fresh water

Production and distribution of fresh water on ships involve systems such as evaporators, reverse osmosis units, and freshwater generators. Freshwater is distributed through a network of pipes, pumps, and storage tanks to various points of use. Regular monitoring, maintenance, and testing ensure the safe and reliable supply of potable water.

31- Criticality of evaporator boiling and flash evaporation in Fresh Water generators

Critical aspects of evaporator boiling and flash evaporation include maintaining proper temperature, pressure, and flow rates to optimize freshwater production. These processes require regular maintenance and monitoring to prevent fouling, scaling, and corrosion, ensuring efficient and reliable operation.

32- Three measurements and actions to prevent failures on on-board electrical systems

Three measurements and actions to prevent failures on on-board electrical systems include: insulation testing to identify deteriorating insulation, magneto-thermal protections and fuses to protect against overcurrent, and controls with frequency meters and power factor meters to monitor and maintain electrical system performance. Regular maintenance and monitoring are essential for preventing electrical failures.

33- Electrical systems onboard: nsulation, magneto-thermal protections and fuses, controls with frequency meters and power factor meters)

Insulation testing, magneto-thermal protections, and fuses safeguard electrical systems from damage caused by short circuits or overloads. Frequency meters and power factor meters help monitor system performance, allowing for proactive maintenance and problem resolution. Regular checks and proper operation of these devices contribute to the safety and reliability of on-board electrical systems.

34- Ship structure (framework, longitudinal and transverse structures)

Ship structure comprises a framework and longitudinal and transverse structures that provide strength and rigidity. These elements work together to withstand various loads, such as buoyancy, wave action, and cargo weight. Regular inspections and maintenance help identify and address structural issues, ensuring the vessel’s safety and integrity.

35- Routine tasks during the engine room watch (routines and breakdowns)

Routine tasks during engine watch include monitoring main propulsion, diesel engines,  and auxiliary machinery performance, conducting inspections, performing maintenance, and addressing any issues or breakdowns that may arise. Efficient engine watch routines help maintain the ship’s propulsion system and ensure its safe and reliable operation.

36- Marine diesel Engine lubrication and lubricants: Flashpoints, TB extension, Poor point of fuel oil and lube oil on ships

Marine diesel engine lubrication involves the use of lubricants with specific properties, such as appropriate flash points, TB extension, and pour points for fuel oil and lubricating oil. These properties are essential for maintaining engine performance, reducing wear and tear, and ensuring the safe operation of the ship’s machinery.

40- Test devices in the on-board electrical system: Insulation measurement, Vibrations, Current, Voltage

Test devices in onboard electrical systems include insulation measurement equipment, vibration analyzers, current meters, and voltage meters. These devices help identify potential issues, monitor system performance, and ensure the reliability and safety of electrical systems on ships.

41- Routine tasks in the engine room (careful on the engine, keep diesel engines ready )

Routine tasks in the engine room involve regular checks, maintenance, and operation of the ship’s machinery. Key tasks include monitoring system parameters, checking lubrication levels, inspecting for leaks, performing routine maintenance on equipment, and ensuring safety measures are in place. Being careful in the engine room is crucial for personal safety and the proper functioning of the ship’s machinery, and readiness ensures the ability to respond effectively in case of any emergency or malfunction.

42- Vessel Compartmentation. Regulations (construction in terms of fire and water integrities as per SOLAS Convention)

Vessel compartmentation is a key aspect of the SOLAS Convention, designed to ensure ships maintain structural integrity in case of fire or flooding. The regulations dictate the construction and arrangement of watertight and fire-resistant bulkheads, ensuring that different compartments are separated and can contain emergencies effectively. Proper compartmentation helps maintain the vessel’s stability, buoyancy, and safety in case of accidents or damage.

43- Where is the zinc located on ships? What is the Impressed Current system for ships?

Zinc anodes are typically placed on ship hulls, propellers, rudders, and other submerged metallic parts to protect against corrosion. Impressed current systems (ICCP) are an alternative method of providing cathodic protection against corrosion by applying an external direct current to the ship’s hull, making it the cathode in the electrochemical process and preventing the dissolution of the hull’s metal.

44- Causes of the shutdown of a frequency converter associated with an electric propulsion motor

Causes of the shutdown of a frequency converter associated with an electric propulsion motor can include overheating, electrical faults, imbalances in the power supply, or malfunctions in the motor’s drive system. Troubleshooting and addressing these issues is vital to ensure the reliable and efficient operation of the propulsion system.

45- Engineer Officer duties during an engine room fire

During an engine room fire, the Engineer Officer’s duties include raising the alarm, informing the bridge, activating the fixed firefighting system, shutting down ventilation, and isolating fuel and power supplies to the affected area. The officer must also coordinate the emergency response team, ensure personnel safety, and assess the situation to determine the best course of action to contain and extinguish the fire.

46- Oily water separator for all ships’ machinery space

Oily water separators (OWS) are essential for the treatment of bilge water in machinery spaces. They separate oil from water, allowing the treated water to be discharged overboard while retaining the oil for proper disposal. Proper operation and maintenance of the OWS are crucial to comply with MARPOL regulations and prevent marine pollution.

47- Electrical welding in the workshop list the protections to be taken, risk assessment documents, and Analyze the area, oxygen, and explosiveness, If it is welded in port, a port chemist must be called in to issue gas-free certificates

When performing electrical welding in the workshop, safety measures should include ensuring proper ventilation, wearing protective gear, and isolating the work area. Risk assessment documents should be completed, and the area should be analyzed for oxygen levels and explosiveness. If welding is to be performed in port, a port chemist must be called in to issue gas-free certificates.

48- Materials, hot and cold workings, mechanical properties. Difference Between Extensibility and Ductility, and also explaining Breaking load, Internal tensions.

Materials used in ship construction can undergo hot and cold working processes, which affect their mechanical properties. Extensibility is the ability of a material to stretch without breaking, while ductility refers to the material’s ability to deform under tensile stress. Breaking load is the maximum load a material can withstand before breaking, and internal tensions result from forces acting within the material.

49- Working and Rest Hours (MLC 2006)

According to the MLC 2006, seafarers must have adequate hours of rest to ensure their health and safety. Minimum rest periods are specified, such as 10 hours of rest within any 24-hour period and 77 hours in any 7-day period, with some exceptions.

50- Garbage management plans

Garbage management plans are required onboard ships to comply with MARPOL Annex V regulations. The plans provide guidelines for the collection, storage, processing, and disposal of ship-generated waste, helping to minimize the environmental impact of waste disposal at sea.

51- Reverse osmosis system onboard ships

Reverse osmosis systems onboard ships are used to produce fresh water from seawater. The process involves forcing seawater through a semi-permeable membrane, which separates salts and impurities, providing clean water for drinking, cooking, and other onboard uses. Proper maintenance and monitoring of the reverse osmosis system are essential for ensuring a reliable supply of fresh water to the crew and ship systems.

52- SOLAS Convention

The SOLAS (Safety of Life at Sea) Convention is an international maritime treaty that sets minimum safety standards for the construction, equipment, and operation of ships. It aims to protect the lives of passengers and crew members by prescribing various regulations related to vessel design, firefighting, life-saving appliances, radio communication, and navigation. The SOLAS Convention has been updated several times to address emerging technologies and evolving safety concerns, and it is a key regulatory framework for maritime safety worldwide.

53- Corrosion phenomenon on ships

Corrosion is a natural process that occurs when metals are exposed to a harsh marine environment, leading to the deterioration of their material properties. It is a significant issue for ships, as it can compromise the structural integrity and performance of various components, ultimately affecting the vessel’s safety, reliability, and efficiency. Several factors contribute to corrosion on ships, including the presence of seawater, humidity, oxygen, temperature, and aggressive chemicals. The most common types of corrosion are galvanic corrosion, uniform corrosion, pitting corrosion, crevice corrosion, and stress corrosion cracking. To minimize and prevent corrosion, various methods can be employed, such as using protective coatings, cathodic protection systems (like sacrificial anodes and impressed current systems), and selecting corrosion-resistant materials for ship construction. Proper maintenance, inspection, and repair procedures are also crucial in controlling corrosion and ensuring the longevity of the ship’s structure and components.

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